Table of Contents
Method of Missed Ṣalāĥ
Please read this booklet completely. You will realize its benefits,
Excellence of Ṣalāt-‘Alan-Nabī
The Beloved and Blessed Prophet said, “Reciting Durūd upon me is refulgence on the bridge of Ṣirāṭ. The one reciting Durūd upon me eighty times on Friday, his eighty years’ sins will be forgiven.” (Al-Jami’us-Ṣagīr, pp. 320, Ḥadīš 5191)
not offering the Ṣalāĥ at proper time, offering Ṣalāĥ by incorrect method, offering the Ṣalāĥ without taking interest, offering the Ṣalāĥ without contemplation, offering the Ṣalāĥ lazily and carelessly.” (Nūr-ul-‘Irfān, p. 958)
Horrible Valley of Hell
There is a mention of the word “Wail” in verse number 4. Ṣadr-ushSharī’aĥ Ḥaḍrat Maulānā Muḥammad Amjad ‘Alī A’ẓamī says, “In Hell, there is a valley that is so horrific that even Hell itself seeks refuge from its severity. This valley is called “Wail” and it is for those who miss their Ṣalāĥ deliberately.” (Baĥār-e-Sharī’at, pp. 347, vol. 1)
Mountains would Melt Down due to Heat
Ḥaḍrat Sayyidunā Imām Muḥammad bin Aḥmad Żaĥabī says, “It has been said that there is a valley in Hell bearing the name ‘Wail’. If even mountains of the world are put into it, they would melt due to its heat. It is the abode of those who are sluggish in their Ṣalāĥ and offer Ṣalāĥ beyond stipulated time making it Qaḍā, unless they feel ashamed of their recklessness and repent in the court of Allāĥ ” (Kitāb-ul-Kabāir, p. 19)
The Torment of Head-Crushing
The beloved and blessed Prophet said to his blessed companions “Two angels (Jibrāīl and Mīkāīl came to me tonight and took me to the sanctified land where I saw that a person was lying and another person was standing by his head holding a stone. The standing person was repeatedly crushing his head with the stone and every time his head would heal. I asked the angels, who is he?’ They requested me to proceed further (and after showing me other scenarios of torment) they answered, ‘The first person you saw was the one who had abandoned the Quran having read it and would sleep at the time of Farḍ Ṣalāĥ, (so) he will be punished like that until the Day of Judgement’.” (Saḥīḥ Bukhārī, pp. 425, vol. 4, Ḥadīš 7047)
Flames of Fire in the Grave
A man’s sister died; when he returned after burying her, he recalled that his pouch of money had dropped into her grave. So he returned to the graveyard in order to dig it out. When he dug it open, he saw a terrifying scene. The flames of fire were blazing in his sister’s grave. He quickly filled up the grave again and rushed desperately towards his mother and asked her, “Dear mother! How were the deeds of my sister?” She said, “Son! Why are you asking?” He replied “I’ve seen flames of fire blazing in her grave.” On hearing this, his mother began to cry too and said, “Your sister used to miss her Ṣalāĥ and would offer Ṣalāĥ beyond the stipulated time.” (Kitāb-ul-Kabāir, p. 26)
Dear Islamic brothers! When such bitter torments are for those who offer Ṣalāĥ beyond stipulated time, then how (perilous) would be the end of those who do not offer Ṣalāĥ at all?
If one Forgets to offer Ṣalāĥ then…?
The beloved Rasūl of Allāĥ said, “If one misses his Ṣalāĥ due to sleep or forgetfulness, he should offer it when he recalls as it would be time of that Ṣalāĥ (for him).” (Saḥīḥ Muslim, pp. 346, Ḥadīš 684)
The reverent Islamic jurists say, “If one misses his Ṣalāĥ due to sleep or forgetfulness, it is Farḍ for him to offer it as Qaḍā; there will be no sin of missing the Ṣalāĥ for him in this case. However, he should offer the Ṣalāĥ as soon as he recalls or wakes up provided it is not a Makrūĥ time, further delay is Makrūĥ.” (Baĥār-e-Sharī’at, pp. 701, vol. 1)
Will the Šawāb of Adā be given if Ṣalāĥ Missed due to Unavoidable Reason?
There is a Fatwa concerning whether or not one will earn the Šawāb of an “Adā” Fajr Ṣalāĥ (offered within prescribed time) in case of offering it as “Qaḍā” Ṣalāĥ (offered beyond stipulated time) due to sleep: A’lā Ḥaḍrat Imām Aḥmad Razā Khān states on page 161 (volume 8) of Fatāwā-e-Razavīyyaĥ, “As far as the Šawāb for the Adā Ṣalāĥ is concerned, it is under the omnipotence of Allāĥ . If Allah would see that he was not negligent on his part at all, he had been waking with intention to remain awake till dawn but went into sleep inadvertently, then there will be no sin on his part.” The Merciful Prophet states, “Sleeping is not recklessness in any case; recklessness is on part of one who does not offer Ṣalāĥ (despite being awake) until the time of next Ṣalāĥ begins.” (Saḥīḥ Muslim, pp. 344, Ḥadīš 681)
Sleeping in the Last Part of the Night
If one goes to sleep after the time of Ṣalāĥ had started and resultantly, the time (of Ṣalāĥ) elapsed, rendering the Ṣalāĥ Qaḍā, he will definitely become sinner provided he was not confident enough to wake up nor there was someone who can awake him. In fact, it cannot be permitted to sleep even before the starting of timings of Fajr Ṣalāĥ provided most part of the night was spent in wakefulness and it is almost sure that if one sleeps now, he will not be able to wake within the timings (of Fajr). (Baĥār-e-Sharī’at, pp. 701, vol. 1)
Waking till Late Night
Dear Islamic brothers! If there is a fear of missing Fajr Ṣalāĥ due to staying awake till late hours at night in gatherings of Żikr and Na’at, religious congregations etc. one should sleep in the Masjid in such a case with the intention of I’tikāf or sleep at a place where someone trustworthy for rousing him is available or he should set an alarm clock which can wake him up but one should not depend upon just one timepiece as it may run down or turn off because of being hit by hand in sleep. The reverent scholars say, “If one fears that he would miss the Fajr Ṣalāĥ, he is not allowed to stay awake till late hours at night without Shar’ī permission.” (Rad-dul-Muḥtār, pp. 33, vol. 2)
Definitions of Adā, Qaḍā and Wājib-ul-I’ādaĥ
Carrying out commandments within their stipulated timings is called Adā.
Carrying out commandments after the elapsing of stipulated timings is called Qaḍā.
If some flaw occurs in carrying out a commandment, repeating that worship to compensate for that flaw is called I’ādaĥ (Revision).
If Takbīr-e-Taḥrīmaĥ was uttered within the stipulated time, Ṣalāĥ would not become Qaḍā; it is still Adā. (Dur-re-Mukhtār, pp. 627-632, vol. 2) But in case of Fajr, Jumu’aĥ, and Eid Ṣalāĥ, it is necessary to perform Salām (of Ṣalāĥ) within the stipulated time; otherwise Ṣalāĥ will not be valid. (Baĥār-e-Sharī’at, pp. 701, vol. 1)
To miss Ṣalāĥ without a lawful exemption is a grave sin. It is Farḍ to perform it as Qaḍā and repent sincerely by heart. By virtue of repentance or an acknowledged Ḥaj the sin of delay (in offering the Ṣalāĥ) will be forgiven. (Dur-re-Mukhtār, pp. 626, vol. 2) Repentance will only be valid if one offers Qaḍā of the missed Ṣalāĥ. Repentance without performing Qaḍā is not repentance because the Ṣalāĥ which was due on him is still due and how can repentance be valid without refraining from sin! (Rad-dul-Muḥtār, pp.
Ḥaḍrat Sayyidunā Ibn-e-‘Abbās reports that the Prophet of Allāĥ, the intercessor of Ummaĥ said, “The one who repents without abandoning sins is like the one who jokes with Allāĥ .” (Shu’bul Īmān, pp. 436, vol. 5, Ḥadīš 7178)
There are Three Pillars of Repentance
Ḥaḍrat ‘Allāmaĥ Sayyid Muḥammad Na’īm-ud-Dīn Murādābādī says, “There are three pillars of repentance:
- Admitting the sin.
- Feeling of shame.
- Determination to abandon the sin. If the sin is compensable, it is must to compensate for it. For example, it is necessary for the completion of repentance of the abandoner of Ṣalāĥ to offer the missed Ṣalāĥ as Qaḍā.” (Khazāin-ul-‘Irfān, p. 12)
It is Wājib to rouse a Sleeping Person for Ṣalāĥ
If someone is sleeping or he has forgotten to offer Ṣalāĥ, it is Wājib for the other who is aware of it to rouse the sleeping person or remind the one who has forgotten to offer Ṣalāĥ. (Baĥār-e-Sharī’at, pp. 701, vol. 1) (Otherwise, the one who is aware will be sinner). Remember! Rousing or reminding will be Wājib only if it is almost sure that he would offer Ṣalāĥ; otherwise not.
Wake up, It’s Time for Fajr!
Dear Islamic brothers! Earn heaps of Šawāb by waking up sleeping Islamic brothers for Ṣalāĥ. In the Madanī environment of Dawat-eIslami, waking the Muslims for Ṣalā-tul-Fajr is called ‘Ṣada-e-Madīnaĥ.’ Though Ṣada-e-Madīnaĥ is not Wājib, awaking Muslims for Fajr Ṣalāĥ is an act of Šawāb which every Muslim should perform. However, care must be taken that no Muslim is distressed on account of calling Ṣadae-Madīnaĥ. An Incident An Islamic brother told me (Sag-e-Madīnaĥ ), “We, a few Islamic brothers, were passing by a lane calling Ṣada-e-Madīnaĥ using a megaphone at the time of Fajr Ṣalāĥ. Meanwhile, interrupting us, a person said that his child who could not sleep all the night had just slept. He requested us not to use the megaphone. We got annoyed with that person as to what type of Muslim he was. We were awaking people for Ṣalāĥ and he was preventing us. By chance, the next day we again moved towards the same lane calling Ṣada-e-Madīnaĥ. The same person was standing in gloom at the verge of the lane and said to us, ‘Today again my son had not slept all the night, he has just gone to sleep, I am standing here to request you people to pass by this lane silently.’
This incident shows that Ṣada-e-Madīnaĥ should be called without using megaphone and even when calling without it, one should not raise his voice so loudly that it disturbs Islamic sisters offering Ṣalāĥ or reciting the Holy Qurān inside homes, patients, aged people and children or those who have fallen asleep after offering the Ṣalāĥ in its earlier time. If someone prevents us from calling Ṣada-e-Madīnaĥ we should humbly apologise to him rather than making arguments with him; further, we should have positive opinion about him as surely no Muslim can oppose awaking people for Ṣalāĥ; most probably, he would be facing some genuine problem. Even if he is an abandoner of Ṣalāĥ, we are still not entitled to behave aggressively. Instead, we should entice him towards Ṣalāĥ politely making our individual effort on any other appropriate occasion.
Apart from Ażān-e-Fajr, care should be taken in using Masjid speakers or sound systems for gatherings in streets or homes making it sure that the sound of the speaker does not disturb those worshipping at homes, patients, infants, sleeping ones etc.
An Incident about ‘Realization of Public Rights’
To be considerate of public rights is extremely necessary. Our past saints were very careful in this regard. Therefore, Ḥujja-tul-Islam Sayyidunā Imām Muḥammad Ghazālī reports that Sayyidunā Imām Aḥmad bin Ḥanbal had a student who spent many years in his company acquiring knowledge. One day, as he came, the Imām turned his face away (expressing his annoyance); when the student insisted to let him know the reason of annoyance, he said, “You have expanded the corner wall of your house up to a man’s height towards the roadside hindering a thoroughfare of the Muslims.” In other words, “How can I be pleased with you whereas you have obstructed the passage of the Muslims!” (Iḥyā-ul-‘Ulūm, pp. 96, vol. 5) This incident contains lesson for those who obstruct public pathways by getting terrace etc. constructed outside their homes.
Offer Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ as Soon as Possible
It is Wājib to offer the missed Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ at the earliest. However, delay is permissible for the sake of earning livelihood for family and meeting personal needs. Therefore, one should keep earning livelihood and offer the Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ in spare times until all Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ are offered. (Dur-re-Mukhtār, pp. 646, vol. 2)
Offer Your Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ in Seclusion
Offer Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ in seclusion; do not reveal it to others even to family members and close friends (for example, do not say like: I missed Fajr Ṣalāĥ today or I am offering Qaḍā of missed Ṣalāĥ of lifetime etc.) as mentioning (your) sin (to others) is Makrūĥ-e-Taḥrīmī and a sin. (Raddul-Muḥtār, pp. 650, vol. 2) Therefore, do not raise hands for the Takbīr of Qunūt while offering Qaḍā of Witr Ṣalāĥ in the presence of others.
Lifetime Qaḍā on the Last Friday of Ramaḍān?
Some people offer Qaḍā of lifetime missed Ṣalāĥ in congregation on the last Friday of Ramaḍān-ul-Mubārak and assume that all the Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ of lifetime has been offered by offering this one Ṣalāĥ; it is nothing but a sheer fallacy. (Baĥār-e-Sharī’at, pp. 708, vol. 1)
Calculation of Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ of the Whole Life
The one who has never offered Ṣalāĥ and now has been blessed with the desire to offer the Qaḍā of lifetime missed Ṣalāĥ should make a computation from the day when he reached puberty. If the date of puberty is not known, it is safer that the man should make computation from the age of 12 years and the woman should do the same from the age of 9 years. (Fatāwā Raḍawiyyah (Jad īd), pp. 154, vol. 8)
Order of Offering Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ
While offering lifetime Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ, one may first offer all Fajr Ṣalāĥ, then all Ẓuĥar Ṣalāĥ and similarly ‘Aṣr, Maghrib and ‘Ishā Ṣalāĥ.
Method of Offering Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ (Ḥanafī)
There are 20 Rak’āt of Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ in a day: two Rak’āt Farḍ of Fajr, four of Ẓuĥar, four of ‘Aṣr, three of Maghrib, four of ‘Ishā and three Rak’āt of Witr (Wājib). Make intention like this, “I am offering the very first Fajr that I missed.” Similar intention may be made for every missed Ṣalāĥ. If one has a large number of missed Ṣalāĥ to offer, it is permissible for him to avail following relaxations:
- Uttering the Tasbiḥāt in Rukū’ and Sujūd once instead of thrice. However, one must always make sure in all sorts of Ṣalāĥ that he starts uttering the having completely bent for Rukū’ and that he begins to lift his head up from Rukū’ having uttered the Similar care has to be taken in Sajdaĥ. َن ا ’
- Uttering. ‘ three times in the 3rd and 4th Rak’at of Farḍ Ṣalāĥ instead of reciting Sūra-e-Fātiḥaĥ, but remember that Sūrae-Fātiḥaĥ and a Sūraĥ are to be recited in all the three Rak’āt of Witr.
- In the last Qa’daĥ, performing the Salām having uttered just ‘ after Tashaĥĥud without reciting the remaining Durūd Sharīf and Du’ā.
- Uttering just ‘once or three times instead of the supplication of Qunūt in the third Rak’āt of Witr after uttering .Fatāwā Raḍawiyyah (Jad īd), pp. 157, vol. 8)
Qaḍā of Qaṣr Ṣalāĥ
If the Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ missed in travelling state is to be offered in settled state, it will be offered Qaṣr (curtailed) and if the Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ missed in settled state is to be offered in travelling state, it will be offered completely i.e. curtailing will not be done. (Fatāwa-e-‘Ālamgīrī, pp. 121, vol. 1)
Ṣalāĥ of Apostasy Period
Allāĥ forbid, if someone became apostate and then embraced Islam again, he is not required to offer the Qaḍā of the Ṣalāĥ missed during the period of apostasy. However, it is Wājib to offer the Qaḍā of the Ṣalāĥ missed in the state of Islam before becoming apostate. (Rad-dul-Muḥtār, pp. 647, vol. 2)
Ṣalāĥ at the Time of Delivery
If the midwife fears that the baby would die in case of offering Ṣalāĥ, it is a valid reason for her to miss Ṣalāĥ in this situation. If the head of the baby came out and there is a fear that the time of Ṣalāĥ would end before the start of Postnatal Bleeding, it is Farḍ for the mother to offer the Ṣalāĥ even in this condition; if she does not offer Ṣalāĥ, she will be a sinner. Ṣalāĥ should be offered by keeping the head of the baby in some dish etc. in such a careful way that it is not harmed. However, if there is a fear of the baby’s death in case of offering Ṣalāĥ even in this way, delay is exempted. Qaḍā of this Ṣalāĥ is to be offered after the termination of postnatal bleeding. (Rad-dul-Muḥtār, pp. 627, vol. 2)
In which Condition a Patient is exempted from Ṣalāĥ?
The patient who is not in a condition to offer Ṣalāĥ even by gestures is exempted from offering Ṣalāĥ provided that the same condition lasts up to the next six (consecutive) Ṣalāĥ; offering Qaḍā of Ṣalāĥ missed under this condition is not Wājib. (Fatāwa-e-‘Ālamgīrī, pp. 121, vol. 1)
Repeating the Ṣalāĥ of Lifetime
If there was an imperfection or repugnance in somebody’s Ṣalāĥ, it is good for him to repeat all Ṣalāĥ of his past lifetime. If there was no imperfection, repeating the Ṣalāĥ is not advisable. However, if he still repeats, he should not offer such Ṣalāĥ after Fajr and ‘Aṣr; a Sūraĥ should also be recited after Sūra-e-Fātiḥaĥ in all Rak’āt. In Witr, after reciting Qunūt and performing Qa’daĥ, he should add one more Rak’at to make four in all. (Fatāwa-e-‘Ālamgīrī, pp. 124, vol. 1)
If Forgot to Utter the Word ‘Qaḍā’, then……?
A’lā Ḥaḍrat Maulānā Shāĥ Imām Aḥmad Razā Khān says, “Our scholars approve that offering Qaḍā with the intention of Adā and offering Adā with intention of Qaḍā, both are valid.” (Fatāwā Raḍawiyyah (Jad īd), pp. 161, vol. 8)
Offer Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ of Lifetime in Place of Nawāfil
Offering Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ is more important than offering supererogatory Ṣalāĥ i.e. when one has time to offer Nafl Ṣalāĥ, he should offer Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ instead of Nafl Ṣalāĥ so that he gets relieved of the obligation; however, he must not leave Tarāwīḥ and twelve daily Rak’āt of Sunnate-Muakkadaĥ.(Baĥār-e-Sharī’at, pp. 706, vol. 1)
Offering Nafl is not Permissible after Fajr and ‘Aṣr Ṣalāĥ
After Fajr and ‘Aṣr, it is Makrūĥ (Taḥrīmī) to offer all the intentional Nawāfil including Taḥiyya-tul-Masjid and every such Ṣalāĥ that became due on account of some external reason such as Nawāfil of Ṭawāf and votive; likewise, there is the same ruling for every such Ṣalāĥ that was cancelled having been initiated even if it is Sunnaĥ Ṣalāĥ of Fajr or ‘Aṣr. (Dur-re-Mukhtār, pp. 44, 45, vol. 2)
There is no specific timing for offering Qaḍā Ṣalāĥ, one may fulfil this obligation at any time during life; but it should not be offered at Sunrise, Sunset and Mid-Day (Zavāl) as Ṣalāĥ is not permissible at these times. (Baĥār-e-Sharī’at, pp. 702, vol. 1, ‘Alamgīrī, pp. 52, vol. 1)
What to do if Four (4) Sunan of Ẓuĥar are Missed?
In case of offering the Farḍ of Ẓuĥar Ṣalāĥ first, offer the four Rak’āt of preceding Sunnaĥ Ṣalāĥ after offering two Rak’āt of succeeding Sunnaĥ Ṣalāĥ. Therefore A’lā Ḥaḍrat states, “The four Rak’āt of preceding Sunnaĥ Ṣalāĥ, if not offered prior to Farḍ Ṣalāĥ, should be offered after Farḍ Ṣalāĥ preferably after offering succeeding Sunnaĥ Ṣalāĥ (two cycles) as per superior decree of Islamic Jurisprudence, provided Ẓuĥar timing has not yet elapsed.” (Fatāwā Raḍawiyyah (Jad īd), pp. 148, vol. 8)
What to do if Sunan of Fajr are Missed?
If there is a risk of missing the congregational Ṣalāĥ of Fajr on account of offering Sunan of Fajr, one should join congregational Ṣalāĥ leaving the Sunan. But offering the missed Sunan after the Salām (of Farḍ) is not permissible. It is Mustaḥab to offer it twenty minutes after the Sunrise but before Ḍaḥwa-e-Kubrā.
Is Time Span for Maghrib Ṣalāĥ Really Short?
The time of Maghrib Ṣalāĥ is from sunset up to the start of timings of ‘Ishā Ṣalāĥ. The duration of Maghrib timings increases and decreases according to location and date. For example, in Bāb-ul-Madīnaĥ Karachi, minimum duration of Maghrib Ṣalāĥ is 1 hour and 18 minutes as per calendar of Ṣalāĥ timings. Islamic Scholars say: “Except for the cloudy days, early offering of Maghrib Ṣalāĥ is Mustaḥab. Making a delay for as long as two Rak’āt of Ṣalāĥ may be offered is Makrūĥ-e-Tanzīĥī and making a delay such that stars get mixed up without a valid reason such as journey or sickness is Makrūĥ-e-Taḥrīmī. (Baĥār-e-Sharī’at, pp. 453, vol. 1)
A’lā Ḥaḍrat Maulānā Shāĥ Imām Aḥmad Razā Khān states, “Mustaḥab time of Maghrib Ṣalāĥ is up to the clear appearance of stars; making such a delay that small stars (in addition to the big ones) also start glittering is Makrūĥ (Taḥrīmī).” (Fatāwā Raḍawiyyah (Jad īd), pp. 153, vol. 5)
The Rak’āt of Sunnaĥ Ṣalāĥ offered before Farḍ Ṣalāĥ of ‘Aṣr and ‘Ishā are Sunnaĥ-e-Ghaīr Muakkadaĥ and, therefore, it is not necessary to offer them as Qaḍā, if missed.
What is the Ruling Regarding Qaḍā of Tarāwīḥ?
If Tarāwīḥ is missed, there is no Qaḍā for it; neither in congregation nor individually. If someone offers Qaḍā of Tarāwīḥ, they will be regarded as Nafl; these Nawāfil would have nothing to do with Tarāwīḥ. (Tanvīrul-Abṣār & Dur-re-Mukhtār, pp. 598, vol. 2)
The “Fidyaĥ” (Compensation) for Missed Ṣalāĥ
[Those whose relatives have passed away must read the following account]
Ask about age of the deceased person. If the deceased is a female, subtract 9 years and if the deceased is a male subtract 12 years as the period of minority. Now, for the remaining years, make a calculation as to how long the deceased person missed Ṣalāĥ or fasts of Ramaḍān i.e. find out the number of Ṣalāĥ and fasts of Ramaḍān whose Qaḍā is due on him. Make an over-estimate preferably. Rather make a computation for the whole life excluding the period of minority. Now donate one Ṣadaqa-e-Fiṭr (to Faqīr) for each Ṣalāĥ. One Ṣadaqa-e-Fiṭr amounts to 2.050 Kg of wheat or its flour or its price. The number of Ṣalāĥ is six for each day; five Farḍ Ṣalāĥ and one Witr Wājib. For example, if the price of 2.050 Kg wheat is Rs. 12, the amount of one day’s Ṣalāĥ will be Rs. 72 and that of 30 days’ Ṣalāĥ, will be Rs. 2160. For 12 months, the amount will be Rs. 25920. Now if the Ṣalāĥ of 50 years are due on a deceased person, Rs. 1296000 will have to be donated as Fidyaĥ. Obviously, everybody does not possess enough money to donate this much amount. To resolve this problem, our scholars have devised a Shar’ī Ḥīlaĥ (a way out) e.g. Rs.2160 may be donated to some Faqīr (Definition of Faqīr and Miskīn may be seen on page. 207-208)
with the intention of Fidyaĥ for all the Ṣalāĥ of 30 days. In this way, Fidyaĥ of Ṣalāĥ of 30 days would get paid off. Now, that Faqīr should gift that amount to the payer. Having received the amount, the payer should again donate it to the Faqīr with the intention of Fidyaĥ of Ṣalāĥ of another 30 days in such a way that the amount again comes in the custody of the Faqīr. This exchange should continue till Fidyaĥ of all Ṣalāĥ gets paid off.
It is not necessary to perform Ḥīlaĥ with the amount of 30 days; it has been stated just as an example. Suppose that the amount for Fidyaĥ of 50 years is available, a single exchange will be sufficient. It should also be noted that the computation for the amount of Fidyaĥ will have to be made as per latest price of wheat. Similarly, there is one Ṣadaqa-eFiṭr for each fast. Having paid Fidyaĥ of Ṣalāĥ, the Fidyaĥ of Fasts may also be paid off in the same way. Poor and rich both may avail the facility of Ḥīlaĥ. If heirs carry out this deed, it would be a great help for their deceased. In this way, the deceased person will be relieved from the obligations and the heirs will also deserve Šawāb and recompense. Some people donate a volume of the Holy Qurān to a Masjid etc. assuming that they have paid Fidyaĥ of all Ṣalāĥ of the deceased person; it is their misconception. (For details see: Fatāwā-eRazavīyyaĥ, V8, P168, Razā Foundation Lahore)
A Ruling Concerning the Fidyaĥ for a Deceased Woman
If the (monthly) habitual duration of the deceased woman’s menstrual period is known, the days equal to the total period of menses may be subtracted from the age of 9 years, and if it is not known, 3 days per month may be subtracted as per above-mentioned way. However, the days of menstrual period would not be subtracted from the months of pregnancy. Moreover, if the duration of woman’s post-natal bleeding is known, the days equal to the total period of post-natal bleeding may be subtracted for each pregnancy, and if it is not known, nothing should be subtracted as there is no limit on minimum side for post-natal bleeding. It is possible that the bleeding would stop in a minute and she would become pure. (Fatāwā Raḍawiyyah (Jad īd), pp. 154, vol. 8)
Ḥīlaĥ for 100 Whips
Dear Islamic brothers! I have not mentioned the Ḥīlaĥ of Ṣalāĥ on the basis of my personal opinion. The justification for Shar’ī Ḥīlaĥ is present in the Holy Qurān, Ḥadīš and renowned books of Ḥanafī Doctrine. For example, once, the noble wife of Ḥaḍrat Sayyidunā Ayyūb got late in getting to his blessed court during the period of his illness, so he swore to hit her 100 whips after recovering from the illness. When he recovered, Allāĥ ordered him to strike her with a broom made of 100 straws. The Holy Qurān says:
There is a complete chapter on the topic of Ḥīlaĥ entitled “Kitāb-ulḤīl” in the famous Ḥanafī book “‘Alamgīrī.” It is stated in the same book: “It is Makrūĥ to do a Ḥīlaĥ to deprive someone of his rights, or create doubt in it, or deceive by something false, but the Ḥīlaĥ aimed at preventing someone from committing Ḥarām, or in order to attain something Ḥalāl is commendable. The following Qurānic verse is a proof for the permissibility of such types of Ḥīlaĥ:
Shar’ī Ḥīlaĥ for Zakāĥ
The foregoing Ḥadīš clearly indicates that the meat donated as Ṣadaqaĥ to Ḥaḍrat Sayyidatunā Barīraĥ who was deserving of Ṣadaqaĥ was doubtlessly Ṣadaqaĥ for her. However, when the same meat, after being given in her custody, was presented in the court of the Holy Prophet its ruling changed altogether and it was no longer Ṣadaqaĥ.
Similarly, a deserving person (deserving of Zakāĥ), after taking Zakāĥ in his custody, may gift it to anybody or he may donate it for Masjid etc. as this donation by that deserving person is a sort of gift rather than Zakāĥ. The reverent scholars have described a Shar’ī Ḥīlaĥ for Zakāĥ that is as follows:
The money of Zakāĥ cannot be used to pay for the burial or shrouding expenses of a deceased or for the construction of Masjid as Tamlīk-eFaqīr (i.e. making the Faqīr owner of Zakāĥ donation) is missing here. However, if the money of Zakāĥ is to be spent on such matters, donate Zakāĥ to some Faqīr so that he becomes its owner and now that Faqīr may spend the money (in construction of Masjid etc.); both will gain Šawāb.” (Baĥār-e-Sharī’at, pp. 890, vol. 1)
100 People will be Rewarded Equally
Dear Islamic brothers! Did you see? The money of Zakāĥ may be used for burial expenses or in the construction of Masjid after performing Shar’ī Ḥīlaĥ as the money is Zakāĥ for Faqīr but once the Faqīr gets its possession, he becomes its owner and he may spend it as he likes. By virtue of Shar’ī Ḥīlaĥ, Zakāĥ of the donor got paid and at the same time, the Faqīr became entitled for Šawāb for spending his money in the construction of Masjid. The ruling for Shar’ī Ḥīlaĥ may be explained to the Faqīr as well. If possible, the donation should be circulated in hands of more people while performing Shar’ī Ḥīlaĥ so that more people could gain Šawāb. For example, suppose 12 hundred thousand rupees of Zakāĥ are to be donated to a Faqīr for Shar’ī Ḥīlaĥ. The Faqīr should take this amount in his possession and then gift it to other Islamic brother. That Islamic brother, after having the possession of the amount, should gift it to another one. In this way, each involved brother should handover possession of that amount to the other with intention of gaining Šawāb and the last one, then, should spend it for construction of Masjid or in any other expenditure for which Shar’ī Ḥīlaĥ has been done; everyone will get Šawāb of spending 12 hundred thousand rupees as Ṣadaqaĥ.
Ḥaḍrat Sayyidunā Abū Ĥuraīraĥ reports that the beloved Rasūl of Allāĥ said, “If Ṣadaqaĥ is circulated through hundreds of hands, then each one of them will earn the Šawāb equal to that of the donor and there will be no deduction in his Šawāb.” (Tarīkh Baghdad, vol. 7, pp. 135, Ḥadīš 356)
Definition of “Faqīr”
A Faqīr is the one who (a) possesses some assets but they are less than the worth of Niṣāb (b) or the one who possesses assets valued up to the amount of Niṣāb, but the same are engaged in his basic necessities (i.e. by means of his assets, his basic needs are being fulfilled) e.g. a house for living, household items, animals (or scooter, car) for travelling, tools for a craftsman, clothes for wearing, slaves for servitude, Islamic books for the one interested in religious study but not more than the requirement, (c) Similarly, if someone is in debt such that on deduction of debt, the remaining assets would be less than the worth of Niṣāb; he is also Faqīr, no matter, he possesses multiples of Niṣāb. (Rad-dul-Muḥtār, pp. 333, vol. 3 etc.)
Definition of “Miskīn”
A Miskīn is the one who does not possess anything and he has to beg others for food or clothes for covering the body. Begging is Ḥalāl (allowed) for him. It is Ḥarām for a Faqīr (i.e. the one who possesses meal for eating of one time and has clothes for wearing) to beg without need and compulsion. (Fatāwa-e-‘Ālamgīrī, pp. 187-188, vol. 1, Baĥār-e-Sharī’at, pp. 924, vol. 1)
Dear Islamic brothers! It became obvious that the beggars who beg as a profession without need and compulsion despite being capable enough to earn livelihood are sinners; further, those who donate such people despite being aware of their condition, their Zakāĥ and charity go to waste and they become sinners as well.